SITUATION BEFORE THE INITIATIVE BEGAN
Since 1990, the generated waste in Pudong New District was sharply increased from less than 1,000 tons per day in 1990 to 2,000 tons in 2000. It resulted in environmental pollution, waste of land resource. For some residents, the living environment was worsening.
ESTABLISHMENT OF PRIORITIES
Under the leadership of the Pudong New District government, a waste management principle of “Reduction, Recycling and Reuse, Safe Disposal” and the following priority have been identified by the participants after studied for one year:
- To formulate a complete plan on waste management;
- To Integrate governmental management agencies into a new one;
- To Identify the most important facilities for waste recycling and reuse;
- To improve resident’s living environment.
FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
Technical and financial feasibility is taken into the consideration of objectives, strategies and implementation.
- To maximise recycling and reuse;
- To reduce the amount of directly landfilled waste;
- To improve resident’s living environment.
An integrated technology by a chain of recycling and reuse, including biological treatment, waste-to-energy technology and landfill is identified and developed. To ensure recycling and reuse, a biological pre-treatment is developed to economically decompose biodegradable organics and to remove moisture in waste in priority. Then mechanical sorting system separates recyclables. Residuals are safely disposed either by incineration or by landfill.
MOBILISATION OF RESOURCES
The total investment of the project is 182.64 million US Dollars, among which, Shanghai Pudong Meishang Hi-Tech Environmental Protection Co, Ltd invested 23.79 million US Dollars; Shanghai Pucheng Heat and Electricity Supply Co, Ltd invested 88.08 million US Dollars and the Pudong New District government financed 70.77 million US Dollars.
For the whole project, management staff worked totally in 2,400 month/persons, workers from the firms in 82,500 month/persons, consultants and experts from outside in 20 month/persons. The number of people involved in research and survey from other institutions was 2,000. 40 of staffs and workers were trained abroad.
More then 10 research projects were carried out. Several Chinese academic/research institutions and about 20 firms involved in the required technology development and equipment manufacturing, particular in biological pre-treatment technology and mechanical sorting system. The China Association of Urban Environmental Sanitation provided a great deal of valuable information and technical support during the implementation. Only a part of incineration technology and equipment were introduced from abroad.
Formulating a complete waste management plan and integrating governmental agencies into one:
In order to increase management efficiency and to prevent shuffling from governmental agencies from each other, a new agency integrated all responsibilities from others, Department of Solid Waste Management of Shanghai Pudong New District, was established in 2001. The new department is responsible for the whole issues about waste management. Meanwhile a complete waste management plan and strategy, including waste collection, transportation, treatment and disposal, was approved by the Pudong New District government. Later, a waste management information and assessment systems were established. A third party has implemented the evaluation and inspection independently. Thus, the waste management has been becoming more systematic and scientific.
Constructing facilities and reducing environmental pollution:
From 2001 to 2003, a waste-to-energy facility, the Yuqiao Waste Incineration Plant with capacity of 1,000 t/d, and the Meishang Composting Plant with capacity of 1,000 t/d, were successfully operated respectively. From 2004 to 2005, the Liming Landfill had been fully renovated and upgraded. The landfill gas and leachate has been collected and treated. The air, water and soil pollutions caused by the waste have been significant reduced or almost solved after the above measures were taken.
Innovating technology and recycling and reuse waste:
To suit the characteristics of waste, such as high biodegradable organic content, high moisture, and low caloric value, and to overcome the weak point of existing technology and equipment, the biological pre-treatment and mechanical sorting system was developed and adopted after experiments. Biodegradable organics is decomposed and moisture removed by anaerobic biological process in approximate 10 days. Then recyclables such as metals, glass and plastics are successfully sorted by the machines. The net caloric value of the pre-treated waste is increased to approximate one time compared to raw waste.
Implementing campaign and education and attracting public participation:
In order to change the living style and consuming mode into sustainable ways and to attract more and more public to participate in waste management, Bureau of Environmental Protection and Municipal Sanitation Management of Shanghai Pudong New District organised activities, like “Children help Adults”, “One-day Trip on Environmental Protection”, to strengthen public awareness and to promote the waste separation collection in homes. The media have involved actively. More than one million copies of promoting materials were distributed and 90,000 posters put up.
“Reduction, Recycling and Reuse, Safe Disposal” is identified as the principle of waste management. The biological treatment, waste-to-energy technology and landfill are well integrated to recycle and reuse, and to treat waste in environmentally sound.
As the important process to ensure recycling and reuse, 80% of biodegradable organics is decomposed, 50% of moisture in waste removed by the biological pre-treatment in 10 days. 80-90% of recyclables are sorted and recovered by mechanical sorting system. Residuals are disposed safely either by incineration or by landfill.
The net caloric value of pre-treated waste is increased to approximate one time compared to raw waste. The working condition of incineration is much improved. Air, water and soil pollutions are significantly reduced or almost solved.
In the last five years, a total of 200,000 tons of recyclables were sorted and recovered from waste, 71,000 tons of composting produced, 387 million kWh of electricity generated, and 120,000 tons of bottom ash from the incineration reused. The annual average growth rate of waste generation is decreased from the previous 8% to 5% at present. The life-span of landfill site has extended to another five to six years.
Everyday the generated waste in the district is fully collected, recycled, reused and disposed safely. It has dramatically improved the resident’s living environment and reduced environmental pollution. According to the public survey by an independent organisation in 2005, the residents gave 85 marks (full mark is 100) to the solid waste management in the Pudong New District.
Partner 1 and Partner 2 recover mainly their investments and operation costs by charging waste treatment fees and pay back loans. At present, the fees are paid by the waste generators and the Pudong New District government. The waste generators that pay the treatment fees are enterprises, institutions and social groups. Their payment covers 35% of charged treatment fees. A plan of charging waste treatment fee with 0.6 US Dollar per household per month has been formulated.
The Pudong New District government exempts Partner 1 and Partner 2 from the VATs and sales taxes, income taxes for two years, and reduces income taxes by half for three years. Profits are made from selling the electricity generated by waste incineration. The electricity selling price is US$ 0.07/kWh, 50% higher than those generated by coal-fired.
The annual average growth rate of waste generation is decreased from the previous 8% to 5% at present. A great amount of recyclables, like metals, plastics and glass, are recycled and reused. Biomass is used as composting product in greening and agriculture as well as to generate electricity. The amount of directly lanfilled waste is reduced as much as two thirds of raw waste. The non-renewable resources such as minerals and land have been saved greatly.
The operational mechanisms of facilities have been reformed. A concession system is being established. Partner 1 and Partner 2 have signed concession contracts with The Pudong New District government respectively to obtain right of solely operating facilities for 10-30 years. An Italian company, Impregilo Group has paid more than 55.76 million US Dollars to buy 50% of shareholdings in the Shanghai Pucheng Heat and Electricity Supply Co, Ltd..
The waste management should follow the principle of “Reduction, Recycling and Reuse, Safe Disposal”. To avoid and reduce waste generation is placed on the top of hierarchy. Once the waste generated, recycling and reuse the resources from the waste as much as possible should be taken into account to protect environment.
Recycling and reuse are the effective means to save resources and land. In the last five years, a total of 200,000 tons of recyclables were taken from the waste, 71,000 tons of composting produced, 387 million kWh of electricity generated, 120,000 tons of bottom ash from the incineration reused. The amount of landfilled waste is reduced to less than one third of raw one. The life-span of landfill sites has extended to another five to six years.
The biological pre-treatment and mechanical sorting system are the basic and important processes to ensure recycling and reuse from waste. 80% of biodegradable organics are decomposed and 50% of moisture content in waste removed by the biological pre-treatment. 80-90% of recyclables such as metals, glass and plastics are separated by mechanical sorting system. Residuals are disposed safely either by incineration or by landfill. The net caloric value of the pre-treated waste is increased to approximate one time compared to raw waste. The working condition of incineration has been improved so much. The air, water and soil pollutions are significantly reduced or almost solved. The biological pre-treatment and mechanical sorting system are the most fascinating technology and processes in the project.
The uniform waste treatment fees and adjustment mechanism are helpful to maximise recycling and reuse from waste by establishing reasonable the waste flow. The research on this issue needs to be done deeply in the future.
As the basic and important processes to ensure recycling and reuse from waste , the biological pre-treatment and mechanical sorting system plays a key role in the integration with biological treatment, waste-to-energy technology and landfill. In this project, recycling and reuse from waste are successfully carried out even the waste separation collection in homes and offices, is not or not widely implemented. The waste with high moisture content (approximate 50-60%) is successfully removed and high biodegradable organics decomposed by biological pre-treatment under aerobic condition in about 10 days. Due to successful overcoming the those problems, the project has been designated by the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Construction of People’s Republic of China as demonstration project.
What has been solved in the project is right what other cities in China as well as in the world are facing, but not solved by themselves. Therefore, the experience has the value to share not only in China but also in the world. At present, the process, technology and equipment, and mode of investment and operation adopted in this project, have been replicated in Hohot, Fushun, Changshu and other cities in China, and successfully operated. They are welcome by local governments and residents.
China Association of Urban Environmental Sanitation and other partners have enough capacity to transfer the technology, mode and experience from the project to others. Actually, they have played the roles to promote and spread the experience to others by organizing seminars, workshops and training courses. Hundreds of management staff and technicians from more than 70 cities, including Hong Kong, either participated in workshop and training course, or had fielded trips to Shanghai Pudong New District to learn the experience. Zhejiang Province and Nanchang City have made plans to apply the technology and mode in their own projects.