Issued on: 8 Sept 2011
Urban Safety Consultant, Tanzania
28 days spread over 2 months
15 September 2011
UN-HABITAT Review of urban planning policies
UN-HABITAT work at local and global level has focused in recent years on developing awareness on urban planning related issues and the relevance of urban planning for sustainable development (ref: Global Report on Human Settlements 2009). In this regard it has supported cities in developing appropriate planning processes and approaches to address critical development issues such as environmental planning and management, enhancement of urban safety, and local economic development. More recently support has been provided on emerging specific issues such as climate change mitigation and adaptation, slum prevention and upgrading, and infrastructure planning and investments in relation to water and sanitation.
Over time, it has been realized from this expansive experience at local level however, that a key hindrance in the institutionalization of innovative approaches is the lack of supportive urban planning policies, legislation and strategies at national and sub-national levels. In this regard the quest for more sustainable urban development has been compromised.
The UN-HABITAT Medium Term Strategic and Institutional Plan (MTSIP) 2008-2013 which is meant to realign the work of UN-HABITAT to support sustainable urbanization, has 6 focus areas. Focus Area 2 which is on participatory planning, management and governance has identified 3 entry points for maximum impact of this focus area. These include: Climate Change, Urban Safety, and Local Economic Development. In this regard an initial review was conducted in 3 pilot countries including Colombia (Urban Safety), Philippines (Climate Change); and Tanzania (Local Economic Development) to assess the extent to which the 3 key areas are mainstreamed in national frameworks and strategies for urban development.
Following the country reviews, three National Expert Group Meetings (EGMs) were held in each country to discuss the study findings, and this was followed by a Global EGM held in Barcelona, Spain from 15-16 March 2011. The Global EGM recommended amongst other things that in addition to the reviews in the three countries being extended to cover the remaining two other sectors identified as pillars/entry points of Focus Area 2 of the MTSIP as noted above, more countries should be included in the pilots to get a fuller and more conclusive picture. In this regard, and following the interest expressed by governments the review is being extended to the remaining two sectors in the pilot countries as follows: Colombia (Climate Change and Local Economic Development); Tanzania (Climate Change and Urban Safety); and Philippines (Urban Safety and Local Economic Development). This Terms of Reference will focus on Urban Safety, in Tanzania.
2.0 Review of Urban Planning Policy and Legislation with a focus on Urban Safety
2.1 Conceptual framework for understanding Urban Safety and Security
Urban Safety and Security encompasses a wide range of concerns. However, from a human settlements perspective that is in relation to appropriate urban policies, planning, design and governance, three major threats can be identified for the safety and security of cities namely: crime and violence, insecurity of tenure and forced evictions, and natural and human made disasters. These threats either stem from, or are often exacerbated by the process of urban growth and from the interaction of social, economic, and institutional behaviours within cities, as well as with natural environmental processes.
Urban Safety and Security can be understood based on two concepts. The concept of human security and the concept of vulnerability. The concept of human security focuses on people and not states because the historical assumption that states would monopolize the rights and means to protect its citizens has been outdated by the more complex reality that states often fail to fulfil their obligations to provide security. The focus on people also places more emphasis on the role of human rights of individuals in meeting these diverse security needs. There is thus a shift from the rights of states to the rights of individuals. Human security therefore goes beyond the security of borders to the lives of people and communities inside and across those borders. Vulnerability on the other hand can be defined as the probability of an individual, a household or community falling below a minimum level of welfare (e.g. poverty line), or the probability of suffering physical and socio-economic consequences (such as homelessness or physical injury) as a result of risky events and processes (such as forced eviction, crime of flood) and their inability to effectively cope with such risky events and processes. Distinction can be made between physical vulnerability (vulnerability in the built environment) and social vulnerability (vulnerability experienced by people and their social, economic and political systems). Together, these constitute human vulnerability.
2.2 Urban Safety and Security in Tanzania
The Experience of Decentralizing Safety and Security Services in the city of Dar-es-Salaam
Safety, security and justice are closely linked and unless they function cohesively, safety tends to suffer. This has an impact on people’s well-being and economic prospects. In many developing countries, safety, security and justice fall largely outside the purview of local authorities, are highly centralized and depend on different ministries, leading to inefficiencies and a general perception of injustice. In recent years, attempts have been made, with positive results, to decentralize safety, security and justice, involving local authorities as well as communities.
The Safer Dar-es-Salaam Programme supported by UN-HABITAT took advantage of the existing legislation and policy framework that supports and promotes the decentralization of safety and security services to the local authority and community levels. Its objectives are to bring justice closer to the people and to improve the efficiency of safety and security services by devolving the responsibility of dealing with minor offences to the community level.
The supporting policy consists of three major components:
- A Ward Tribunal System to strengthen by-law enforcement at the local level and to alleviate the strain on the justice system, which was over-burdened by minor offences and petty crime. The system is a flexible form of justice delivery, taking into account local culture and emphasizing reconciliation rather than punitive measures;
- The Dar-Es-Salaam City Auxiliary Police, established in late 2000, to assist the National Police in community policing, crime prevention and by-law enforcement;
- The “Sungusungu”, or neighbourhood watch groups, with defined powers and roles in crime prevention, originate from traditional rural defense groups. They are managed by neighbourhoods working with the auxiliary and/or national police. Households contribute in cash or in kind.
All three components function together to strengthen the capacity of local authorities in managing and sustaining urban security. Ward Tribunal members and Sungusungu receive continuous training. Municipalities have set aside a budget for the Auxiliary Police and provide allowances for members of Ward Tribunals. In addition to residents’ contributions for the “Sungusungu” groups, municipalities have provided equipment. Regular sensitization workshops have been held with the communities, the police and private security firms and they are all involved at all stages of implementation. Special attention is paid to the involvement of women and youth at risk.
The success of the Safer Dar-Es-Salaam initiative has led to the replication of the Auxiliary Police, Ward Tribunals and “Sungusungu” in other municipalities in and outside Tanzania. Ten Tanzanian towns are working on replicating the Safer Dar-Es-Salaam Programme.
Internal and external evaluations of the Programme and its three components reveal several constraints including gaps in resources and co-ordination, a need for more capacity building and public awareness. These issues are currently being addressed as replication and scaling up are being planned. However, it has to be noted here also that the policy and legislative instruments that provide for the decentralization of urban safety and security services in Tanzania are not part of the urban planning policy and legislation which they should be, as discussed below.
3.0 The Tanzanian Urban Planning Policy and legislation
3.1 Urban Planning Policy
With support from the UN-HABITAT Sustainable Cities Programme, and other donors, Tanzania has applied the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) approach in a number of towns after it proved to be successful in Dar-es-Salaam, the pioneer city, in making urban planning more effective. However this approach has not been scaled up because of a lack of supportive national policy and legislation. Recently however, Tanzania has reviewed its national planning legislation but again this review has not taken into account the three pillars of urban sustainability as noted above.
3.2 The Urban Planning Legislation
The current urban planning legislation in Tanzania (The Urban Planning Act - 2006) which is a review of the former Town and Country Planning Ordinance 1950, is limited to land use planning. In this regard there is a two tier land use planning system to guide urban development: A General Planning Scheme and a Detailed Planning Scheme. The purpose of a General Planning Scheme according to the 2006 Urban Planning Act is “to coordinate sustainable development of the area to which it relates in order to promote health, safety, good order, amenity, convenience, and general welfare of such area as well as efficiency and economy in the process of such development”. The Act goes further to stipulate that the purpose of a General Planning Scheme shall be to improve the land and provide for the proper physical development of such land, and to secure suitable provision for transportation, public purposes, utilities and services, commercial, industrial, residential and recreational areas, including parks, open spaces, agriculture and reserves, and for the making of suitable provision for the use of land for building or other purposes. A General Planning Scheme may provide for the planning, re-planning, redevelopment, or reconstructing the whole or part of the area comprised in the Scheme, and for controlling the order, nature and direction of development in such area.
According to the Act, a Planning Scheme will be comprised of:
a) technical report on the conditions, resources and facilities in the area;
b) a statement of policies and proposals with regard to the allocation of resources, and the locations for development within the area;
c) description and analysis of conditions of development in the area as may be necessary to explain and justify the statement of policies and proposals;
d) relevant studies, data and reports concerning the physical development of the area;
e) map and plans showing present and future land uses and development in the area; and
f) any information as the Director of Town Planning may deem necessary.
A Detailed Planning Scheme is prepared within the framework of a General Planning Scheme. Its purpose is to coordinate all development activities, to control the use and development of land including intensive use of urban land and, in particular, vertical and compact urban development. A Detailed Planning Scheme may be long term or short term physical development scheme. A Detailed Planning Scheme is comprised of:
a) a survey in respect of the area to which the Scheme and carried out in a manner as may be prescribed and;
b) maps and descriptions as may be necessary to indicate the manner in which the land in the area may be used..
Such a planning legislation as described above is based on the traditional Master Planning approach to urban planning and hence it is not conducive to sustainable urban planning. Sustainable urban planning requires that issues of economy, ecology and equity are addressed and integrated in the planning framework. Although the Tanzanian legislation purports to promote sustainable urban planning, the approach advocated falls short of achieving that goal.
It is for this reason that UN-HABITAT is looking for a consultant to undertake a review of the urban planning policy and legislation in Tanzania taking Urban Safety as an entry point in an attempt towards integrating this key element of urban sustainability in policy, legislation and strategies.
Duties of the consultant (Tanzania)
- Study the UN-HABITAT Medium Strategic and Institutional Plan (MTSIP) and in particular its FA 2 policy paper on planning management and governance;
- Develop a conceptual and analytical framework on the links between Urban Safety and Planning for sustainable urban development The consultant will be required to undertake extensive literature review comprising published and print media, internet searches, review of policy documents, workshop reports etc.;
- Analyse the urban planning policy and legislation in Tanzania to identify the extent to which Urban Safety issues have or have not been incorporated.
- Analyse a sample of 2 Master plans which have been prepared recently for Tanzania towns/cities to determine the absence or otherwise of Urban Safety considerations in the future development of the cities. The consultant will be expected to pay a particular attention to the recently completed new Kigamboni Master Plan and the new Master Plan for the city of Dar-es-Salaam which is underway.
- Develop a questionnaire for national and local stakeholders based on the above analysis in order to get their thoughts concerning the future of integrating Urban Safety elements on Urban Planning Policy and Legislative frameworks. The questionnaire will also review the experiences of local Urban Safety management plans in selected areas such as the city of Dar-es-Salaam.
- Analyse the questionnaire and develop a matrix which shows potential areas for introducing Urban Safety elements in the urban policy and legislative processes.
- Produce a report of no less than 25 pages 1.5 spacing, font of 12, A4 size. The report will include the methodology used for the analyses, the findings, conclusions and recommendations. In this regard, it will underscore the extent to which Urban Safety has or hasn’t been mainstreamed in urban planning policy and legislation, case studies of some practical urban planning work where Urban Safety considerations have been the main objective, opportunities and challenges which exist for addressing Urban Safety concerns at the local urban level. The report should also propose areas for further work by the UN-HABITAT in supporting this initiative in Tanzania.
- Organise a National Expert Group Meeting in Tanzania to review the report and make their comments and suggestions.
- Revise the study report in the light of the comments and suggestions from the National Expert Group Meeting and produce a final report for submission to UN-HABITAT.
OUTPUT 1: First analytical report on the problems, issues and recommendations for integrating Urban Safety management elements in national and local urban planning frameworks in Tanzania for presentation to a National Expert Group Meeting.
OUTPUT 2: Final Report of the review of planning policy and legislation in Tanzania taking Urban Safety as entry point for submission to the UN-HABITAT.
Reports will be written in English, and presented in hard and soft copy. Materials collected and referenced will also be made available to UN-HABITAT.
COMPETENCIES (maximum of five)
(1) Planning and Organising (2) Communication (3) Teamwork (4) Accountability (5) Creativity.
The consultant selected will have a degree in social sciences and will have experience in the work of UN-HABITAT. Specific knowledge of the UN-HABITAT urban planning work such as the Sustainable Cities Programme (SUDP), the City Development Strategies (CDS), the Safer Cities Programme, the Somalia Strategic Urban Development Programme will be an added advantage.
Solid working experience in one of the fields with a mimimum of five years in that field. In addition, good working knowledge on at least one or two of the other required aspects.
English is mandatory the required local language would be an advantage.
Good Research skills and good communication skills.
USD 8,820 for 28 days work spread over 2 months duration. Payments will be made in two payments as follows:
Payment 1: 50% of the consultancy sum after production of the draft report for presentation to a National Expert Group Meeting.
Payment 2: 50% of the consultancy sum after production of a final report acceptable toUN-HABITAT.
Payments will be based on deliverables over the consultancy period. There are set remuneration rates for consultancies. The rate is determined by functions performed and experience of the consultant. The fees will be paid as per agreement.
Applications should include:
- Cover memo (maximum 1 page)
- Summary CV (maximum 2 pages), indicating the following information:
- Educational Background (incl. dates)
- Professional Experience (assignments, tasks, achievements, duration by years/ months)
- Other Experience and Expertise (e.g. Internships/ voluntary work, etc.)
- Expertise and preferences regarding location of potential assignments
- Expectations regarding remuneration
All applications should be submitted to:
Mr. Jossy Materu and Ms. Joyce Shihembetsa
P.O. Box 30030, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
Please be advised that since April 15th 2010, applicants for consultancies must be part of the
UN-HABITAT e-Roster in order for their application to be considered. You can reach the e-Roster
through the following link: http://e-roster.unhabitat.org
Deadline for applications: 15 September 2011
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