Since its entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, China has made many significant reforms with at least 40 new laws and regulations to facilitate the flow of inward investment, private sector development and improved government efficiency. China has also made significant developments towards achieving the Millennium development goals. In the reform process, the government has a poverty reduction strategy (2001-2010) focused on the poorest of the poor.
Nanjing is a city with a long history and a rich culture. It is also an economically important city in the eastern part of China. It currently has a population of over six million, but the rate of urbanization is high. Since the 1980s, when many new urban construction projects were initiated, Nanjing has implemented several integrated projects to reduce water pollution. The city has received support from the governments of France and Spain to achieve these impressive results. The river beautification schemes have resulted in the city being honoured with a prize from the State Planning Commission.
Responsibility for water and sanitation in Nanjing rests with the Municipal Bureau of Public Utilities. The city currently uses 2 million m3/day water. The per capita consumption is high compared to other Chinese cities at approximately 400 l/cap/day. The city has some problems maintaining water quality due to the large volumes of wastewater produced, particularly where sewage and surface waters are combined. Future plans for the city include a major national sporting event in 2005. Investments in the water and sanitation sector are being given top priority and there are plans for private sector participation.
Nanjing City has been included in the Water for Asian Cities programme because the per capita water consumption in the city is high (400 l/cap/day) yet there is no public perception of high usage. An analysis of water demand management and subsequent interventions, guided by the programme, could greatly improve water supply efficiency, reduce the volume of wastewater and protect historic sites. In this context, a school water education component will be developed.
Secondly, although large sewage treatment systems have been built serving 50% of the population, there is an environmental problem of disposal of sewage sludge. Current disposal options are expensive and adversely affect water resources protection. A programme of sludge treatment and disposal would greatly assist management of wastewater in the city by reducing operational expenditure. Some of the smaller urban centres could also benefit from the development of decentralised sewage treatment options and reuse of wastewater thus further enhancing the river quality.
Nanjing city authorities have a good experience in managing loans from both bi- and multilateral sources.
This project will assist the city authorities of Nanjing to finalise a fully costed Nanjing city proposal which takes input from local authorities, national government and takes into account respective policies and programmes of the four key partners. The proposal will outline agreed implementation arrangements, partners including the Ministry of Construction and Nanjing municipality, and suggest an implementation timetable. The programme is to be presented for support to the PRC Ministry of Finance and to the State Development Planning Commission. Follow up support will be reviewed with the Asian Development Bank and UN-HABITAT and outlined in a Memorandum of Understanding.