Initially UN-HABITAT pilots the above-mentioned adaptation and mitigation policies and strategies, the tools, the financing mechanisms and the partnerships in four cities. However, more partner cities are emerging in Africa, Latin America and Asia.
Esmeraldas is a coastal city located in the extreme northeastern corner of Ecuador. Primarily due to its location, this region is seen as the most vulnerable to climate change. Flooding and landslides in the rainy season and droughts in the dry season are likely to increase.
Kampala, the capital of Uganda, is rapidly growing. New settlements, many of them informal, are set up in risk prone areas (flooding). The heavy reliance on wood and charcoal are of great concern with regard to air pollution as well as deforestation.
Maputo, the coastal capital of Mozambique suffers frequent flooding. The cities three islands already show clear evidence of climate change effects, which include, the disappearance of Mangroves, degradation of water quality, desertification and loss of agricultural land.
Sorsogon City is the capital city of Sorsogon Province highly at risk to the combined climate and weather related risks and volcanic eruptions. The low lying coastal city has experienced several extremely destructive tropical cyclones and storm surges in recent years; their intensity and frequency is likely to increase.
Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Bobo Dioulasso is the second largest city in Burkina Faso, and is considered the economic capital of the fabrics industry and commercial and artisan activities. Burkina Faso is a landlocked country and Bobo Dioulasso is severely affected by rising temperature, reduction in rainfall, flooding, land degradation and desertification.
Mombasa is Kenya's second largest city; a major trade centre and home to Kenya's only seaport. Mombasa's high vulnerability results from its low altitude, especially the coastal plain. This low lying area is likely to submerge should the sea level rise.
Kigali, the capital city of the landlocked country of Rwanda, has a population of around 900,000. Over the next years the city is expected to grow at a fast rate of 6 percent a year. The Wetland valleys of the city with industrial, commercial and residential uses are at risk of flooding. Residents are highly dependent on wood and charcoal for fuel, which creates deforestation pressures in the hinterlands. Analysts expect that parts of Rwanda that previously were malaria-free will become "highly suitable" for transmission of this disease due to rising temperatures.
Walvis Bay, Namibia
Walvis Bay is the second largest city in Namibia and has an estimated population of 65 000 people. It is the only deep sea harbour on the Namibian coast. Walvis Bay is blessed with a rich variety of biodiversity and marine resources. A recent sea level rise assessment for the coast of Namibia indicated that Walvis Bay is most vulnerable due to its location below sea level.
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